What is the church? That is what we must determine before we delve into the composition and manifestation of the church. The most basic meaning of the Greek word ekklesiawhich is translated “church” in the New Testament is “called out.” This was a common term for a congregation or an assembly. It speaks of those who are called out for a specific purpose and was specifically used in this manner when Luke spoke of the Ephesian assembly (which was a tumultuous mob) in Acts 19:32&39 where it is translated “assembly.” With this in mind we can conclude that the church is a group of people called out by God for His own purpose. In fact, Peter presents this fact to us very plainly in 1Pet 2:9 saying, “Ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light.” (1 Peter 2:9) KJV
The Old Testament Church
Though very little is said about the nation of Israel being part of God’s church, the Bible does plainly present this fact to us. Stephen, speaking of Moses, said, “This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us.” (Acts 7:38) KJV Now, there are those who would wish to deny that this is indeed a reference to Israel as being a part of God’s church. They would like to tell us that this is simply an assembly of people, and that is all that ekklesiais meant to convey to us in this context. The fact remains, however, that the word ekklesia occurs more than 100 times in the New Testament, and only in Acts 19:32&39 is it translated “assembly.” In every other instance it is translated “church” or “churches.” The only time it is used to speak of an assembly other than the Lord’s church is in Acts 19:32&39. The typical usage of ekklesiain the New Testament is in reference to a called out group of people. That is precisely what the nation of Israel was. “When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt.” (Hos 11:1) KJV Thus, we can be assured that, though it did not function in the same manner as a New Testament church, there was indeed a church in the Old Testament.
The New Testament Church
What about New Testament days? How do we see the church in the New Testament? First of all, the local church is certainly seen in the New Testament. The church is there with her leaders, discipline, and ordinances. At the same time the church is also seen as a larger body that is composed of all who know Jesus. It is this manifestation of the church that we want to consider.
When Jesus first mentions the church, He made a special promise to the church that actually demonstrates to us that the church is more than a local body alone. Jesus said: “upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.” (Mt 16:18) KJV Why say that this applies to more than the local church? Because many local churches have died. This promise must pertain to some form of church other than the local church. Local church only proponents may say that this applies to the church in general. To do so, however, is to concede that there is some form of church beyond the local church. There is a church that shall never die, according to the promise of Jesus. What church is it?
The apostle Paul was one who understood the church to be general in nature and manifesting itself in local assemblies. It was he who told us “by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.” (1 Cor 12:13) KJV Entrance into the body of Christ comes by the baptism with the Holy Spirit (See Gal 3:26-29). The question then arises, into what body is one baptized? Historically, Baptists have required water baptism for local church membership. I think that is the right thing to do. If this is so, into what one body is the believer baptized into when baptized with the Holy Spirit?
Paul’s language again shows us the general nature of the church when he said “God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.” (1 Cor 12:28) KJV Having just told the Corinthian church that their local assembly was the body of Christ, he proceeds to tell them about the gifts that are given to the church. The first gift mentioned was apostles. Were the apostles given to the Corinthian church, or the church general which is composed of Holy Spirit baptized believers?
There’s hardly another passage in which the church general can be seen more clearly than the following: “He is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace; And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby: And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh. For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father. Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God; And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord: In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.” (Eph 2:14-22) KJV Paul states that the Jew and the Gentile have been made one. By the cross the Jews and Gentiles are reconciled into one body. There is no Gentile church or Jewish church. There is only the Christian church. There is no longer Israel as the only chosen of God. Gentiles are fellow heirs with believing Israel. We are of the same household as the believing Jew. Together the believing Jew and the believing Gentile are built into God’s holy temple. God dwells in this church. One thing that local church only advocates miss is the fact that the body of Christ is present in this passage, but water baptism is not. Neither will it serve any purpose to insist that it is implied. What is expressly stated is that the cross is what brings people into this one body. The body here is a body composed of the redeemed.
The church as the body of the redeemed is seen again in Paul’s writings to the church at Ephesus. “Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it; That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word, That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself. For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the church: For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones. For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church. Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.” (Eph 5:25-33) KJV How does the church become the church? By the cross of Christ. This same Paul said, “Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.” (Acts 20:28) KJV For whom did Jesus die? He died for the church. Who is the church? Those who have been redeemed: the ones purchased by the blood of Christ. Local church only advocates must notice that water baptism, as important as it is, is never mentioned in these two texts. What is mentioned is redemption through the cross of Christ. The church general is composed of blood bought Christians.
Finally, the having seen the church as the bride of Christ, we must ask the question of the composition of the bride of Christ. Who is in the bride?
The Bride of Christ Composed of All Saints, Both Old Testament And New Testament Saints
First of all, we must go to the Revelation to see the bride of Christ. “I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.” (Rev 19:6-8) KJV Many of those who advocate the local church only (Landmark Baptist, Baptist-Bride) position state that the white robes come from the righteous deeds of the saints. In other words, the ones who are in the bride of Christ are the saints who live up to a certain standard of righteousness and holiness. This standard has never been fully defined, to my knowledge. It is supposed to begin with water baptism into the local church, however.
Does the Scripture uphold this view of the robes of righteousness being righteous works? It is this writer’s contention that the Scriptures do not support that position. Isaiah rejoiced in God’s grace saying, “I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom deckethhimself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.” (Isa 61:10) KJV Isaiah ascribed the garments of salvation and the robe of righteousness as being a gratuitous gift from God, not as something done by the saint. Jesus alludes to this in one of His parables: “When the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding garment: And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he was speechless. Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. For many are called, but few are chosen.” (Mt 22:11-14) KJV In Jesus’ day it was common for great men to invite many people to celebrate when family members were married. We are told by some scholars that often the host would freely provide garments for his guests. It was a great show of disrespect to one’s host to not wear the provided garments. Jesus is telling us that we cannot partake of the joy of His kingdom if we do not accept the garments that He gives us. What is the wedding garment, or the fine linen in which the bride shall be clothed in the day of her marriage to the Lamb? It is the robe of righteousness. It is the imputed righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ (Rom 3:19-28;5:1-3). Thus it is that the bride who has prepared herself and to whom it has been given to be arrayed in fine linen clean and white is none other than all those who have been redeemed by the blood of the Lamb of God. The bride of Christ is composed of those who are justified by faith in Jesus.
We also see the bride of Christ portrayed in the book of the Revelation as the city New Jerusalem. “There came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb’s wife. And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God.” (Rev 21:9-10) KJV One statement especially about this city leads this writer to believe that all of the redeemed of all ages will be a part of the bride of Christ. That statement is as follows: “Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie.”
(Rev 22:14-15) KJV The reader will quickly notice that the only ones who are without the city are those who are not redeemed. By this we readily see that the city is populated with the redeemed*. That being so, and the city being the bride, the bride of Christ is composed of all of the redeemed of all ages. In fact, we find that Abraham and other Old Testament saints anticipated entrance into the New Jerusalem. “These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. For they that say such things declare plainly that they seek a country. And truly, if they had been mindful of that country from whence they came out, they might have had opportunity to have returned. But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city.” (Heb 11:13-16) KJV This writer knows of no city for which they could have been looking other than the New Jerusalem, and God has prepared this city for them. This being so, we can safely conclude that the redeemed of all ages are in the church, the bride of Christ.
For many Baptists this is somewhat shocking to consider. After all, there are groups of Baptists who claim to trace their lineage all the way back to John the Baptist. The claim is often made that Baptists are the true church to the exclusion of all others. While most of those who make these claims would accept that there are Christians outside of Baptist churches, they would not accept that these Christians share with them in being members of the general body of Christ. We should not feel in any way threatened by this truth, however. Baptist identity should still be important to us. We simply should not find our identity in a supposed linked-chain succession of baptisms that go back to John. Neither should we find our identity in a supposed kinship to Christians who held Baptistic doctrines through the ages. Our identity should be found in Christ and in faithful obedience to His Word. That in itself is so unusual today that those who faithfully follow Jesus will certainly stand out from the crowd.
* If one examines the context of Rev 21:1-3 it is possible that the ones who enter the city do not actually live there, but only worship there in this holy city/ tabernacle. Either way, those who have access into this city are the bride of Christ. It remains that this group of people are the redeemed of all ages, and the redeemed are the church.