Romans 9 Notes
:6 at issue is the promise of God to Abraham “the word of God” See Rom 3:1-3
Not all the seed of Jacob are truly Israel (Mt 3:9-11;Rom 2:27-29;Jn 8:41-44)
:7 not all physical descendants of Abraham are counted as his children…..Ishmael wasn’t (Gal 4) Isaac, the son of promise, was counted as the son. Why? He was the son according to the promise: Ishmael the son according to the flesh.
:8 Children of promise counted for seed (Rom 4:16;Gal 3:13,14,26-29)
:9-12 The promise not according to works, but of God. Note that faith is not a work (Rom 4:4,5)
What is God’s purpose in election? (Isa 42:8;Rev 4:10,11;Eph 1:3-7,13,14)
:13 Esau hated???????? Comparative statement, not absolute hatred from eternity past. (Mal 1:1-5;See also Gen 29:30.31;Deut 21:15,16;Prov 13:24;Lk 14:26;Jn 12:25)
:14 Does this mean that God is unrighteous? After all, He made promises to Israel. Now He is denying the blessing to some of Israel while accepting some who are not of Israel. Is this unrighteous? By no means! (Gen 18:25;2Tim 4:8;1Pet 2:23) There is no doubt that God is righteous in all His ways. (Ps 145:17)
:15 The quote concerning sovereign mercy and grace. Is it truly given indiscriminately? No. When we view the context of Ex 33:19 we find that God is having mercy because of His covenant of promisethat He made with Abraham (Ex 32:11-14). God is merciful and gracious to whom He will because He is keeping His promise to bring the seed of Abraham, the children of Israel into the land of promise!
:16 Salvation is not self-caused or self-determined. It comes because of God’s work in man. Man does not bring it to pass through his law-deeds. (Rom 3:1-4:25) God determined to send a Savior. He then determined that all who believe would be saved. This is justification by faith alone that Paul is teaching. (See also Jn 1:10-13;Jas 1:18)
The issue of mercy is simple: No man deserves mercy: it comes to those who ill-deserve it, just as Israel did when the original statement was made. Thus, salvation is freely given to sinners; not inherited, or earned by works of the law. (Eph 2:1-10;Tit 3:1-7)
:17 Pharaoh’s placement and destruction. He was placed where he was that God would be glorified in him. (Ex 9:16;Ps 106:8)
If one truly believes in unconditional election, it would seem that they would need to believe in the supralapsarian view point of election, too. Here we see Pharaoh raised up to be destroyed. Nothing is mentioned of the fact that God hates to see the wicked die (Ezek 18:31,32;33:11). Yet we know that God does hate to see the wicked perish. Why is it not mentioned that God hates to see the wicked die? Pharaoh had passed the point of no return with God. He had hardened his heart (Ex 1:7-14). This is also fulfillment of the promise to Abraham that God would judge those who oppressed Israel (Gen 12:3;15:13-16) The true meaning of this is found in the fact that Pharaoh was hard-hearted, and would have been just as wicked if he had lived in China as a pauper. Pharaoh was being judged for his sin, not created for the express purpose of destruction with it being absolutely necessary that he sin and be destroyed, because that’s how God made him. This passage is but another fulfillment of promise. It also illustrates that God has mercy on the children of promise!!!! (We have already seen these children to be those who are justified by faith in Christ Rom 4:16;Gal 3:13,14)
Whom does God harden? (Prov 29:1)Those who harden themselves against Him. (Gen 15:13-16 cp Deut 2:30 Sihon hardened himself because the his iniquity, and the iniquity of his people had gone as far as God would allow it to go.) (Job 9:4)Man is given the choice of hardening his heart, or not hardening it. In fact, man is commanded to not harden his heart (Ps 95:8;Heb 4:7,8)
:18 On whom does God have mercy? On the ones He chooses to show mercy to……….those who are children of the promise, not children of the flesh, or hardened ones. (I think one could make a case here that the children of the flesh and the hardened ones are one and the same. They are those who are not children of promise, because they will not accept the gospel by faith.)