A Very Brief Overview Of The Book Of Romans

Romans 1- The chapter shows us that justification is by faith, and that all need it, because all have chosen to not give God glory, but have turned their worship elsewhere.

Romans 2-The chapter shows us that Jews also need justification by faith, because they do not keep the law that they were given. Paul shows that the true Jews are those who have been changed on the inside by the grace of God.

Romans 3-The apostle continues and shows that all of us are under sin, have fallen short of God’s glory; yet God told us by the prophets that HE would give us a righteousness not our own, but of Himself in Christ. Jesus died that we might be justified. This is not by our works, so we cannot boast. This shows the abiding authority of the moral law of God.

Romans 4-Abraham was justified by faith and not by works, as was David. Jesus died and rose that we, too, would be justified by faith. 

Romans 5-We are justified by faith, have peace with God, and have hope because of the love of God in Christ that satisfied God’s wrath. In Adam we die, in Christ we live. This is all of grace.

Romans 6-  Being justified, we are dead to sin and alive to God. We should thus live as such.

Romans 7-Those justified are not under the law, but died to the covenant of the law and are now alive to God. The flesh cannot keep the law. Thus the cry, “Who shall deliver me…?”

Romans 8­-answers the question at the end of chapter seven. God will deliver us. Jesus died for us, condemned sin in the flesh, rose, ascended to the Father’s right hand, intercedes for us, and is working all things for the good of His called so that God’s glorious purpose would be realized in us at the resurrection. Nothing can separate us from the justifying and glorifying love of God in Christ.

Romans 9- The chapter continues to show that it is not by the law nor by one’s genealogy that he is right with God. To be among God’s chosen is to be justified by faith.

Romans 10-Paul again explains that one needs only believe the Lord Jesus to be saved; but one needs to hear, and there needs to be one sent to preach that they might hear and believe.

Romans 11-Did God forever cast off Israel? No, the Redeemer shall return and cleanse/justify many among them. Gentiles need to be humble, as we have our standing by faith: we need not boast, because we have no goodness that makes us what we are.

Romans 12-16Being justified by faith, how should we now live? We should live as members one of another, denying self and following Christ, walking in love and not feeding the flesh. We should accept one another, as God has accepted us in CHrsit by faith. We should support the spread of the gospel (Paul intends to go to Spain and desires the Romans to help him on his way. “How shall they preach except they be sent?”) We should stand for the gospel and separate from those who cause divisions contrary to it.

Romans 16:20 It won’t be long and the  promised seed, the King of kings, Jesus Christ, will consummate His work and eternally subjugate and punish the devil. Only through Christ do we have the victory.

Inerrancy: Why Is It Important?

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Inerrancy: Why Is It Important?

Why is it important that we affirm and embrace the doctrine of the infallibility and inerrancy of Scripture? This is a very important issue to me as a pastor. It is greatly relevant to my ministry and the people for whom I am responsible.

The first thing that we need to recognize is the relevance of the truthfulness of Scripture to the truthfulness of God. If Scripture is God’s Word, and we have seen that is what Scripture claims to be, either God has spoken truly or He has not spoken truly. Is God true? Does God speak the truth without error? If God speaks the truth, then we can have confidence that Scripture is true and without error. If not, how great are the implications for God’s people! To have a God who does not speak the truth, or is unable to communicate truth without error is certainly a diminishing of the person of God.

When we consider the fact that Scripture presents itself to us as sufficient for the growth of God’s people, we understand that God’s people need to read and understand the Scriptures. If, as some claim, Scripture presents us truth about God but not about other things such as history, we are left with a book that is somewhat confusing. Scriptures does not give us redemptive truth apart from a historical setting. Scripture was given in real life settings to real people. When God gave us Scripture, He spoke through men who were men of their times. They spoke about God as He interacted with them in their lives. They did not speak of God abstractly, as many theologians speak of Him. They spoke of God as acting in history and doing things that science often says cannot be done. If there are historical and scientific errors in the Scriptures, we must somehow find a way to sift through the error and get to the truth. That would be most discouraging to many people who have no training in history and science. It would create an intellectual priesthood of academics who would be necessary to explain the Scriptures to the common man. That was not, and is not, God’s intent for Scripture. God intends for the Scriptures to be understood by His people. God spoke through common men in a specific time to common men in all times in language that common men can understand. Though the understanding of the common man (And I should also say that of the academics.) is not full, it is sufficient for the purpose of God in Scripture to be fulfilled. God’s people will be transformed as they read, understand, and trust Him as He is revealed in Scripture. Only as we understand Scripture to be true and without error will we arrive at this conclusion.

Once we begin to assert that Scripture errs, we will also come to the point to assert that Jesus erred. There is an indissoluble connection between Christ and the Scriptures. Once admit error into Scripture, Jesus will be admitted as erring. Again, the implications are great. Though we admit the full humanity of Christ, we also embrace His Divinity. Jesus Christ is as truly God as He is human. God does not lie, does not err, and speaks truly in all things. What kind of Savior do we preach to the people? Because truth is more than an issue of correct facts, but is a moral issue as well, we must understand that the admission of error into Scripture will also admit the possibility that they are morally wrong. If we do that, we must also admit that Jesus may very well have been (or at the present, be) morally wrong. That may be very well for those who have so deeply compromised with a secular worldview, but for those of us whose presupposition is that of the truthfulness of Scripture, it will never work. Neither will we embrace a Savior who cannot save, because He is in the same predicament as we are. We embrace the truthfulness of Scripture and the perfection of Jesus our Savior, and we reject anything that compromises these things and diminishes the glory of Christ.

Because faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God (Romans 10:17;2Timothy 3:14-15), we understand that we are to believe the Scriptures. An errant Bible is an untrustworthy Bible. An errant Scripture means that we have an untrustworthy God. An errant Bible means that we have a Christ who is not trustworthy. God is either not true, or unable to speak truth to us in a perfect manner. That means that we cannot trust God’s words and, logically, cannot trust Him. That means that we cannot trust Jesus to speak the complete truth without error and, logically, cannot trust Him. Though we trust men who often fail to speak the complete truth, God has told us that He does not err and does not lie. If we admit error into the Scriptures, we also admit that God errs and does not always speak truthfully. Truthfulness being a moral quality, we find that our ability to trust God, and God as revealed in His incarnate Son, is greatly diminished.

We must also consider the fact that Scripture is given to us for our holiness. We are sanctified by the work of the Word of God (Ephesians 5:25-28;2Timothy 3:16-17). I am not alone in being a pastor who ministers to sinful people on a regular basis. I am also a person who struggles with sin, because I am no different from any other person. What we need is something to change us. God’s Word promises to be used of God to be the instrument that changes us. If I am unsure of the truthfulness of God’s Word, I will not be very trusting of God’s Word and will not submit myself to the sanctifying power of God’s Word as I should. My people and I need a full faith in the Word of God so that our lives will be changed by God. We struggle with sinful habits, sinful thoughts, addictions, immorality, and ungodliness. We need to be able to trust God’s Word and His power to use the Scriptures to sanctify us.

Scripture is given to us for a very practical purpose. Scripture is given to us to lead us to salvation through faith in Jesus Christ and to guide us as we are being transformed into holy people who are pleasing to God. As a pastor, I have great faith that God will use His Word to accomplish His purposes. The reason that I have this faith is that I have faith in God’s trustworthy character, and I have faith in God’s speaking truthfully to us in His Word. As I stand in the pulpit, minister in homes, or wherever I may be, I am convinced that God’s Word is without error and will always direct us correctly. Though we may fail in our interpretations at times, God never fails to tell us exactly what we need in His Word. I am confident that the way of salvation is truthfully presented to us in Scripture. I am confident that the way of holiness is inerrantly presented to us in God’s Word. I am thankful that God’s Word can be trusted as the truth so that we can have confidence in God and His power to save and sanctify.

God, Man, And Inerrancy

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Scripture: God’s Inerrant Word Given Through Men

For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty. For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount. We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” (2 Peter 1:16–21, AV 1873)

 

In this final article on the inspiration and inerrancy of Scripture I wish to address the role of man in the making of Scripture. There is much misunderstanding regarding this. It seems that some hold to a theory that has God dictating Scripture and the biblical writers taking it down word for word. Others hold to an idea that presents man as being of such a nature that he will always err, so that even Scripture has errors. In addressing this issue, I shall embrace neither position. The biblical presentation of how Scripture was given is a very different picture. Scripture presents God as using men, their personalities, their knowledge and backgrounds, and the result being His perfect Word.

 

God The Source of Scripture

First of all, we must affirm along with the Scriptures that God is the source of the Scriptures. As we have seen in previous articles, when Paul speaks of Scripture as being “given by inspiration of God,” (2Timothy 3:16) it means that God is the source of Scripture because He breathed it out. In our text above we see that Scripture did not originate with man, but with God.

Note that Peter stated that Scripture did not come because men simply willed to give it to us. Scripture came to us because men were carried along by the Holy Spirit. One commentator had this to say about the phrase “moved by the Holy Ghost:” “being borne along. It seems to be a favorite word with Peter, occurring six times in the two epistles.[1]” In other words, the Spirit of God moved upon the men who were used to give us the Scriptures. They did not act of their own impulses, but the impulse came from God, and He carried them along as they spoke and wrote.

As we have seen in our other studies, Scripture has God for its source.

 

The Role Of Men In The Making Of Scripture

What role did men play in the making of Scripture? Is Scripture a Divine production, or a human production? The answer is that Scripture is both a Divine production and a human production.

It seems to be the idea of some that the Divine inspiration of Scriptures means that God somehow overrode the personalities and wills of the men He used when He gave Scripture to us. Is this so? I think not, and it seems to me that the Scriptures disagree with that assessment as well.

Notice that our text presents to us the understanding that men were intimately involved in the writing of Scriptures. In fact, we are told that Scripture came to us because men spoke and wrote. “Holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” (2 Peter 1:21, AV 1873) Not only did God move men to speak and write, and then carry them along as they did so; men spoke and wrote. Peter does not speak of men overcome by God, but men moved by God and carried by God. My son is my son with all of his personality traits, whether he walks on his own or I carry him where he and I both choose to go. And so it is with the men who were used of God to give us the Scriptures: they were not suddenly rendered null and void of personality and will, but were just as human as they always were.

Though Scripture quotations could be multiplied regarding this issue, I shall give just a few passages the show us that men were still normal men when God used them to write His words.

  • While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The Son of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, The Lordsaid unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?” (Matthew 22:41–45, AV 1873) Though Jesus presents to us the Psalms as being the Word of God, He also plainly states that it was David who spoke and called Christ his Lord. It is David who bows to the Lordship of Christ and spoke of Him as Lord.
  • Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision, not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers; and ye on the sabbath day circumcise a man.” (John 7:22, AV 1873) The first place that we read about circumcision is in Genesis, and Jesus attributes the composition/authorship of Genesis to Moses. Note that Jesus stated that Moses gave circumcision. While, as we have seen in other articles, Jesus understood the Old Testament Scriptures to be the Word of God, Jesus spoke of Moses as the one who was used of God when the Pentateuch was given.
  • Ye see how large a letter I have written unto you with mine own hand.” (Galatians 6:11, AV 1873) Whatever the reason Paul wrote with large letters, it is plain that it was Paul who wrote them.
  • This second epistle, beloved, I now write unto you; in both which I stir up your pure minds by way of remembrance: that ye may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us the apostles of the Lord and Saviour:” (2 Peter 3:1–2, AV 1873) “And account that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you; as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction.” (2 Peter 3:15–16, AV 1873) Peter here writes of the words spoken by the prophets, the commandments of the apostles, his own writings, and the writings of Paul. He does not use a generic term to refer to these as the Word of God, but explicitly mentions the men or groups of men who wrote the words.

 

As one reads the Scriptures and becomes familiar with them, it is relatively certain that he will eventually become familiar enough to recognize the differences that exist between the various books. Not that the books themselves differ in the sense of contradicting one another, but there is a difference in style. Anyone who is familiar with the New Testament will not mistake the writings of John for the writings of Paul. There is a distinct difference of style as well as thought. Though they agree in their theology, the personalities and styles of John and Paul are obviously very different.

Why is this so? Because God, when He moved men to write and used them to give us His inspired Word, did not overrule the personalities of the men who wrote. God used their unique gifts and personalities to His glory as He used men to write the Scriptures.

This is certainly in harmony with the teaching of the Scriptures regarding the gifts of the Spirit and the unity of the body of Christ. God uses us with our personalities and our gifts to His glory, but it is still His Spirit at work within us. “Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord. And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal.” (1 Corinthians 12:4–7, AV 1873) And again, “For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.” (1 Corinthians 12:12–13, AV 1873) “Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular.” (1 Corinthians 12:27, AV 1873) These verses give us the understanding that God uses people with different personalities, gives them gifts, and uses them to His glory, but does not overrule their personalities while using them. So it was with the men God used in the making of the Scriptures.

 

God-Breathed + Man Written = God’s Inerrant Word

That’s a bit of a surprise, isn’t it? After all, we are often presented with something similar to the following:

Men make mistakes.

Men wrote the Bible.

Therefore the Bible has mistakes in it.

I’ll grant that will work as a syllogism. It is not correct, however, because its first premise does not lead to the conclusion. Sure, men make mistakes. The problem with that view is not that those who hold it think that men make mistakes. The problem is that they are asserting that men always make mistakes. That is a self-refuting statement, though, because if it were true it would at the same time be mistaken.

Men do not always make mistakes. The human element in Scripture does not mean that Scripture contains error. The fact that it is God-Breathed means that it is God’s Word and thus without mistakes.

Let us remember that the Scriptures are not only God-Breathed, but that those who were used in the making of the Scriptures were holy men and who had no intent to deceive. They were also carried along by the Holy Spirit so that the product was the very Word of God. There was a power guiding them and strengthening them for the task they performed and He enabled them to produce the Word of God free from error. This does not mean that the writers of Scripture were without error in everything that they said and did. It does mean that God enabled them to write His Word without erring.

Finally, let us consider two statements that were recorded by John:

  • This is the disciple which testifieth of these things, and wrote these things: and we know that his testimony is true.” (John 21:24, AV 1873) John’s testimony of Christ was written that we might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (See John 20:30-31). If we admit error into the Scriptures, where does it end? Ultimately we are left doubting the very truthfulness of the accounts of the life, death, burial, and resurrection of Christ. After all, they were written by men. Many will speak disparagingly of this statement and call it a slippery slope argument. The reality is that some slopes are slippery and we should warn people so that they will not get on those slopes.
  • And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.” (Revelation 21:5, AV 1873) John declared that he wrote because He was commanded of God to do so. He was commanded to write words that were true and worthy of our believing them. Would those words be true and worthy of our confidence if they were in error?

We can safely conclude that God’s Word, though given to us through men, is without error.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1]Marvin Richardson Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament, 2 Pe 1:21 (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2002).

The Apostolic View Of Scripture

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The Apostolic View Of Scripture

Having examined the view of Jesus and the Evangelists, we now turn to the remainder of the

New Testament to learn of the Apostle’s view of the Scriptures. It will only be possible to highlight

this, due to space constraints. We shall see, however, that the Apostolic view of the Scriptures was a

high view that held the Scriptures to be God’s Word, authoritative, and true.

Acts

“Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of

David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus. For he was numbered

with us, and had obtained part of this ministry. Now this man purchased a field with the reward of

iniquity; and falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. And it was

known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem; insomuch as that field is called in their proper tongue,

Aceldama, that is to say, The field of blood. For it is written in the book of Psalms, Let his habitation

be desolate, and let no man dwell therein: and his bishoprick let another take.” (Acts 1:16–20)

As Peter spoke to the Jerusalem church regarding the need to select a replacement for Judas, he

appealed to the Psalms. His appeal to the Psalms shows that he regarded them to be the very Word of

God, because the Holy Spirit spoke them by the mouth of David, though they were very obviously

written words. We should note, also, that this is the direct Word of God though it comes to us through

man. We do not need a text to be prefaced, “Thus saith the LORD,” for it to be the direct Word of God.

The Scriptures come to us by the Holy Spirit through men, and we can be content with that.

“And when they heard that, they lift up their voice to God with one accord, and said, Lord, thou art

God, which hast made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all that in them is: who by the mouth of thy

servant David hast said, Why did the heathen rage, and the people imagine vain things? The kings of

the earth stood up, and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against his Christ. For

of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with

the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together, for to do whatsoever thy hand and thy

counsel determined before to be done.” (Acts 4:24–28)

This is an important passage to consider as we examine the apostolic view of Scriptures. Here

we find that the early church viewed God as speaking by the mouth of David in the Psalms. What is

crucial is that we recognize that they are saying this in reference to the Scriptures. Though David wrote

the Psalm to which they refer, they consider it to be spoken by God through David. Thus it is the Word

of God.

Some seem to think that those who hold this view speak of God somehow dictating the words to

those who recorded Scripture. The truth is that there were a number of ways in which God

communicated truth to those who wrote Scripture. The final result was the Word of God, regardless of

how God gave the Word to those recording it. One thing is sure, however, and that is the fact that God

used men to give us His Word.

Romans

“For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on

whom I will have compassion.” (Romans 9:15)

“For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might

shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth.” (Romans 9:17)

“As he saith also in Osee, I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved,

which was not beloved.” (Romans 9:25)

For Paul, what Scripture says is what God says. Notice how he says, “he (God) saith, and then

said, “the Scripture saith”, and again says, “He saith also…” These statements show that Paul believed

that when Scripture speaks, God speaks.

“For the scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.” (Romans 10:11)

“Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, A tried stone, a

precious corner stone, a sure foundation: He that believeth shall not make haste.” (Isaiah 28:16)

Paul states here that the “Scripture saith” while quoting a passage that says “thus saith the Lord

God.” Paul’s quoting of the writing shows that he viewed the Scriptures words to be on the same level

as God’s words, because what Scripture says is what God says.

“But I say, Did not Israel know? First Moses saith, I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are no

people, and by a foolish nation I will anger you. But Esaias is very bold, and saith, I was found of them

that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me. But to Israel he saith, All

day long have I stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people.” (Romans 10:19–

21)

Note the progression of “Moses saith,” then “Esaias…saith”, and then “he (God) saith.” What

Moses and Isaiah said in Scripture is what God said.

Scripture, then, is God’s Word.

1&2 Corinthians

“In the law it is written, With men of other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people; and yet

for all that will they not hear me, saith the Lord.” (1 Corinthians 14:21)

“For with stammering lips and another tongue Will he speak to this people. To whom he said, This is

the rest wherewith ye may cause the weary to rest; And this is the refreshing: yet they would not hear.”

(Isaiah 28:11–12)

In this passage we find once more that Paul understood the words of Scripture to be the Words

of God. As Paul quotes his text, he shows that the Scripture is giving us God’s Word even though Isaiah

does not present his writing as directly quoting God.

“Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean

thing; and I will receive you,” (2 Corinthians 6:17)

“Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, touch no unclean thing; Go ye out of the midst of her; be

ye clean, that bear the vessels of the LORD.” (Isaiah 52:11)

Once again we find that Paul demonstrated that what Scripture says is what God says.

Galatians

“And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the

gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed.” (Galatians 3:8)

Here Paul says that the Scripture preached the gospel to Abraham yet, when we turn to Genesis

12:1-3, we find that God Himself was speaking. Once again we find that Paul believed that Scripture is

God’s Word. What Scripture says is what God says.

Ephesians

“But unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ. Wherefore he

saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.” (Ephesians

4:7–8)

“Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: Thou hast received gifts for men; Yea, for

the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell among them.” (Psalm 68:18)

There are some who seek to declare that Scripture is not God’s Word. They use the Psalms as an

example, because they don’t understand how the praise, prayers, pleas, and poetry of men could be

God’s Word. Paul quotes Psalm 68:18, which is the word of David, and identifies it as the words of

Christ (Ephesians 4:7). If the he referred to in Ephesians 4:8 would have been David, I believe Paul

would have said so. Instead, the reference points us back to Ephesians 4:7 and Christ, who is mentioned

there as being the one giving gifts to the church.

Hebrews

“For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And

again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?” (Hebrews 1:5)

“And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God

worship him.” (Hebrews 1:6)

“And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire.” (Hebrews

1:7)

“But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the

sceptre of thy kingdom.” (Hebrews 1:8)

“And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works

of thine hands:” (Hebrews 1:10)

In each of these quotations from the Old Testament Scriptures the writer to the Hebrews

demonstrates his belief that what Scripture says is what God says.

“For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not

ashamed to call them brethren, saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the

church will I sing praise unto thee. And again, I will put my trust in him. And again, Behold, I, and the

children which God hath given me.” (Hebrews 2:11–13)

“I will declare thy name unto my brethren: In the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.” (Psalm

22:22)

“And I will wait upon the LORD, That hideth his face from the house of Jacob, And I will look for him.”

(Isaiah 8:17)

We see once again that the writer to the Hebrews quotes Scripture as the Word of God. What

Scripture says is what God says.

We find other instances in Hebrews where the writer demonstrates his belief that Scripture is

the Word of God:

Hebrews 3:7 the Holy Spirit says

4:3 He spoke

4:6 He…saying

4:8 He spoke

All of these demonstrate the writer’s belief that God speaks in and through the Scriptures, and that

Scripture is the Word of God.

This is followed up by more references in Hebrews 5:5,10;6:16-18;8:8-12;10:15-17,29;12:5.

There is abundant testimony to the fact that the writer to the Hebrews understood Scripture to

be the Word of God. It is worth our while to understand that he was writing to Jewish Christians who,

no doubt, agreed with him on the issue.

1&2 Peter

“Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace

that should come unto you: searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in

them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow.

Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which

are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent

down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.” (1 Peter 1:10–12)

Peter says that the Spirit of God was in the prophets who told us of the Christ’s suffering and

glory.

“We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light

that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: knowing this

first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in

old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” (2

Peter 1:19–21)

Peter declares that the Scriptures came to us through men who were led by the Spirit of God. It

was not simply a man’s decision to write, but he wrote as he was directed by God’s Spirit.

What is the result? Would it not be the Word of God in written form?

“But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you,

who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon

themselves swift destruction. And many shall follow their pernicious ways; by reason of whom the way

of truth shall be evil spoken of. And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make

merchandise of you: whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth

not. For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into

chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; and spared not the old world, but saved Noah the

eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly; and

turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrha into ashes condemned them with an overthrow, making them

an ensample unto those that after should live ungodly; and delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy

conversation of the wicked: (for that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed

his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful deeds;)” (2 Peter 2:1–8)

“which have forsaken the right way, and are gone astray, following the way of Balaam the son of

Bosor, who loved the wages of unrighteousness; but was rebuked for his iniquity: the dumb ass

speaking with man’s voice forbad the madness of the prophet.” (2 Peter 2:15–16)

It is very instructive to see that Peter viewed the Genesis historical narratives as being correct.

He also believed that the narrative about Balaam and his ass was correct. While many today question or

reinterpret various historical narratives in the Scriptures, Peter accepts them at face value and refers to

them as being trustworthy.

When we look at all of the passages mentioned (and there are many more that were not given

due to space constraints), we can see that the New Testament writers viewed the Scriptures as the Word

of God.

Let us take seriously the words of Charles Hodge:

“What does the Bible teach on the subject? If our Lord and his Apostles declare the Old Testament to

be the Word of God; that its authors spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost; that what they said,

the Spirit said; if they refer to the facts and to the very words of Scripture as of divine authority; and if

the same infallible divine guidance was promised to the writers of the New Testament, and claimed by

themselves; and if their claim was authenticated by God himself; then there is no room for, as there is

no need of, these theories of partial inspiration. The whole Bible was written under such an influence as

preserved its human authors from all error, and makes it for the Church the infallible rule of faith and

practice.1”

1 Charles Hodge, vol. 1, Systematic Theology, 182 (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems,

Inc., 1997).

 

Jesus, John And The Scriptures

John Jesus WOG

Jesus, John And The Scriptures

 

In a previous article we studied the synoptic gospels and how they viewed the Scriptures. We also saw how Jesus viewed the Scriptures. In this article we shall study the gospel according to John to see more about Jesus’ view of the Scriptures, as well as examining John’s view of the Scriptures.

 

And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.” (John 2:17)

When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.” (John 2:22)

Notice that Psalm 69:9 is quoted as prophecy, and it seen to be of the same force as Jesus’ own words.

 

 

And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up: that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.” (John 3:14–15)

Here Jesus is seen as accepting Numbers 21:1-9 as a reliable historical narrative.

 

 

Search the Scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.” (John 5:39)

For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me.” (John 5:46)

Jesus and the Jewish leaders of His day believed the Old Testament to be authoritative. Jesus also understood the Old Testament to be speaking of Himself.

 

 

Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was?” (John 7:42)

Both 2Samuel 7 and Micah 5:2 recognized to be authoritative prophecy.

 

 

It is also written in your law, that the testimony of two men is true.” (John 8:17)

Deuteronomy 19:15 quoted as authoritative.

 

 

Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods? If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken; say ye of him, whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God?” (John 10:34–36)

Psalm 82:6 is cited as being part of the law. Though not in the Pentateuch, the “law” was evidently a euphemism for all of the Old Testament Scriptures.

The Word of God came to Israel, Jesus said in reference to this Psalm. The statement may even be a broader statement that speaks of all of the Old Testament Scriptures.

Not only does Jesus view the Psalms as the Word of God, but He also states that the Scripture cannot be broken. That is, the Scriptures are the Word of God and cannot be destroyed or rendered of none effect.

This shows that Jesus viewed the Scriptures as infallible, because they will not pass away. He also viewed them as inerrant, as they will not be voided in any manner.

 

But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him: that the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?” (John 12:37–38)

Isaiah 53:1 is quoted as having been authored by Isaiah and to have been predictive prophecy concerning Jesus.

 

For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.” (John 19:36)

They shall leave none of it unto the morning, nor break any bone of it: according to all the ordinances of the passover they shall keep it.” (Numbers 9:12)

These verses are laws that are contained in historical narratives, yet they are cited as predictive prophecy. This demonstrates John’s firm belief in the reliability of the Old Testament Scriptures.

 

And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.” (John 19:37)

Zechariah 12:10 is viewed as reliable predictive prophecy.

 

For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead.” (John 20:9)

Is we compare Acts 2:25-32 with Psalm 16:10 and Acts 13:34 with Isaiah 55:3, we have a hint of the Scriptures to which John was referring.

We can be certain, however, that John was convinced of the reliability of the Old Testament Scriptures.

 

If we but allow Scripture to speak for itself we find that the evangelists and Jesus viewed the Scriptures to be the Word of God, reliable in both prophecy and in historical narratives, and without error in that which it affirms.

The Testimony Of Jesus And The Synoptics Regarding The Word Of God

synoptics Jesus WOG

The Testimony Of Jesus And The Synoptics Regarding The Word Of God

 

As we consider the inerrancy of the Scriptures we must address what the Scriptures say about themselves. While some may say that it is circular reasoning and arguing to declare Scripture to be the Word of God based upon the testimony of Scripture itself, we declare that it is not necessarily so. We also have the testimony of history which shows to us that Scripture was accepted as the Word of God by holy people of old. Couple this with the presuppositions that we have mentioned in a previous article and we have good reason to read the Scriptures and take their words as reliable testimony.

In this article we shall consider the testimony of Jesus and the synoptic gospels regarding the Scriptures being the Word of God. We shall use Matthew as representative of the synoptics. As we do so we shall see that Jesus and the evangelists took the Old Testament texts to be reliable, authoritative, and the Word of God. Not all passages in Matthew will be considered, but we shall look at enough texts to show us what view Jesus and the evangelists held regarding the Old Testament Scriptures.

Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.” (Matthew 1:22–23)

This first text is an excellent text for us to consider. Liberals who do not believe that Jesus was conceived and born of a virgin would certainly desire to excise this verse. They would love to take the passage quoted (Isaiah 7:14) and tell us all about the Hebrew not necessarily meaning a literal virgin. This passage, however, shows us that Matthew accepted that there was a literal virgin who conceived and bore a child, and that it was also the meaning of the text in Isaiah. Not only so, but he also tells us that the Lord spoke by the prophet. In other words, Matthew viewed the writing of Isaiah as the speaking of the Lord.[1]He saw this as God’s Word.

But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.” (Matthew 4:4)

Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.” (Matthew 4:7)

Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.” (Matthew 4:10)

While there have been diverse views regarding the writing and composition of Deuteronomy, one thing is certain: Jesus’ quoting of Deuteronomy shows that He viewed it as authoritative. He also showed His belief that Scripture is the Word of God by quoting that man shall live by the Word of God (Deuteronomy 8:3), and then quoting other Scriptures as authoritative. Had Jesus not believed them to be the Words of God He would not have believed them to be authoritative. Yet, Jesus embraced both the Divine origins of Scripture as well as the authority of Scripture.[2]

 

Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.” (Matthew 5:17–19)

This passage quotes Jesus as upholding the enduring nature of the Old Testament Scriptures in the most minute of points as well as the authority of the Scriptures. Considering what we have already seen of Jesus’ response to Satan, it is obvious that He is once again asserting that the Scriptures are the authoritative words of God.

 

that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying Himself took our infirmities, and bare our sicknesses.” (Matthew 8:17)

Here we see that Jesus does not present to us multiple authors of the prophecy of Isaiah, but accepts that Isaiah was author of the latter as well as the former parts; and this is, of course, contradictory to much liberal scholarship today. Jesus, however, saw Isaiah chapter fifty-three as being authoritative, and as Matthew wrote he made no distinction between Isaiah 7:14 (See statements on Matthew 1:22-23) and Isaiah 53:4, thus accepting both as God’s Word.

 

At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were a hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat. But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day. But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was a hungred, and they that were with him; how he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests? Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless? But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple. But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless. For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day.” (Matthew 12:1–8)

In this one passage we find Jesus affirming the reliability and truthfulness of 1Samuel 2:16, Exodus 25:30, Leviticus 24:5-9, Numbers 28:9-10, Hosea 6:6, and even the Genesis creation account (Genesis 2:3)! He does this in opposition to the Pharisee’s claim that He and His disciples were acting unlawfully. Jesus simply shows them that the historical narratives of Scripture are authoritative as well as the law, and certainly of greater authority than the Pharisee’s interpretation of the law. At the same time Jesus asserted that it was He who was the Creator who made the sabbath holy, thus insinuating to the Pharisees that it was His word of which they were speaking.

To put it briefly, Jesus presents the Old Testament Scriptures as His Word.

 

And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and came into the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan; and great multitudes followed him; and he healed them there. The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.” (Matthew 19:1–6)

In this passage we find Jesus presenting the Genesis creation account as a reliable historical narrative that is also the authoritative Word of God.

No doubt there are some who would love to argue about my conclusion here, but they must certainly deal with the person of Jesus before they go any farther. If Jesus is indeed the sinless Son of God, we must accept the absolute truthfulness of His Words. Jesus did not deceive the people by accommodating His speech to the errors of their day. In fact, Jesus was on the offensive against their errors (See Matthew 19:1-9 for an example.). Neither was Jesus ignorant of the truth regarding the origins of mankind. To embrace a such as this would be to diminish Jesus’ perfections as well as His deity: a position that is unacceptable to those who believe the New Testament Scriptures.

Our presupposition is that Jesus is the sinless Son of God who speaks truly. Thus we accept Jesus is truly referring to the Genesis creation account as a reliable and authoritative historical narrative.

 

While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The Son of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, The Lordsaid unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then call him Lord, how is he his son? And no man was able to answer him a word, neither durst any man from that day forth ask him any moe questions.” (Matthew 22:41–46)

Jesus here states that David spoke in the Spirit, i.e. David was inspired. Jesus viewed the Psalms as the inspired Word of God given to us through David.

 

And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.” (Matthew 27:35)

Matthew also considered the writings of David to be the Word of God. Here he states that David was a prophet whose words were being fulfilled in Jesus.

 

Having taken the Gospel According To Matthew as representative, we have seen that the writers of the synoptics as well as Jesus viewed the Old Testament Scriptures as the inspired, reliable, and authoritative Word of God.

[1]    It is worth noting that God’s Word does not have to be orally from God. To be God’s Word, it must come from God. Thus God’s Word can be written, and it can be prophetic, poetic, historical, or some other genre. To be God’s Word, it simply has to have God as its source.

[2]It is instructive to see that Satan did not argue with Jesus about Scripture the way that he argues with the rest of us. He simply accepted Jesus’ rebuke, thus showing that even Satan must bow to the authority of God’s Word.

A Brief Theology Of Inspiration part three

Inspiration NT 2

The Inspiration of The New Testament

In this final article on the inspiration of the Scriptures I intend to consider the testimony of the New Testament to its inspiration and the relationship of 2Timothy 3:16 to the New and Old Testaments.

The Testimony Of The New Testament To Its Inspiration

In the last article we saw that Jesus promised that the Holy Spirit would guide His people into all truth, and that the promise guaranteed that we would have God’s words given to us by the Spirit through the apostolic Christians. Let’s see if the New Testament writers ever acknowledged that to be the case as they wrote.

The apostolic Christians knew that the Holy Spirit was going to be sent to testify of Christ, because Jesus had promised that He would (See John 15:26). This promise also contained within it the understanding that the apostolic Christians would bear witness to Jesus as well. After His resurrection, Jesus again told them that they would bear witness to Him after that the Spirit fell upon them (See Luke 24:44-49;Acts 1:8). The book of Acts gives to us the record of how the early church, being filled with the Spirit, testified to Jesus. I believe that it is a fair statement to say that the evangelists were testifying of Christ as they gave to the church their accounts of Jesus’ life and ministry. But what about the rest of the New Testament?

Romans: Paul opens the epistle to the Romans, “Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God, (which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,) concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh; and declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead: by whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name: among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ: to all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.” (Romans 1:1–7, AV 1873)

Paul’s statement is that he is writing concerning Jesus Christ. While there is certainly room for someone to dispute this, it is certainly plausible that Paul understood himself to taking part in the work that Christ promised would be done by the Spirit.

1Corinthians: The apostle says, “Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.” (1 Corinthians 2:12–13, AV 1873)

Here we find Paul saying that his teaching was that of the Holy Spirit. He has no problem stating that the words that he is teaching are of God. Paul explicitly rules out his writing in the fashion of worldly writers, but claims that he is teaching the words which the Holy Spirit teaches, thus claiming Divine sanction for the very words that he wrote.

There are some who contend that Paul claimed that some of his words were not the Word of God, but his own. They do so because Paul said, “And unto the married I command, yet not I, but the Lord, Let not the wife depart from her husband:” (1 Corinthians 7:10, AV 1873) (See also 1Corinthians 7:12,25) The context of this passage shows us, however, that Paul was stating that the Lord Himself had given no commandment regarding this issue when He was ministering upon the earth. In fact, Paul later states again that what he is saying is the work of the Spirit of God saying, “and I think also that I have the Spirit of God.” (1 Corinthians 7:40, AV 1873) Far from disclaiming inspiration, Paul states that his words are indeed inspired of God.

Concerning this passage Meyer said, “Paul knew from the living voice of tradition what commands Christ had given concerning divorce, Matt. 5:31 f., 19:3–9; Mark 10:2–12; Luke 16:18. Hence ὁ Κύριος, sc.παραγγέλλει, for the authority of Christ lives on in His commands (against Baur, who infers from the present, which is to be supplied here, that Paul means the will of Christ made known to him by inspiration). It is otherwise in 1 Thess. 4:15. As regards the ἐγώ, again, Paul was conscious (ver. 40) that his individuality was under the influence of the Holy Spirit. He distinguishes, therefore, here and in vv. 12, 25, not between his ownand inspiredcommands, but between those which proceeded from his own(God-inspired) subjectivityand those which Christ Himself supplied by His objective word.[1]” In other words, Paul knew and claimed that his words were inspired of God.

John Calvin made a similar statement: “But why is it that Paul speaks of himself as the author of these regulations, while they appear to be somewhat at variance with what he had, a little before, brought forward, as from the Lord? He does not mean that they are from himself in such a way as not to be derived from the Spirit of God; but, as there was nowhere in the law or in the Prophets any definite or explicit. statement on this subject, he anticipates in this way the calumnies of the wicked, in claiming as his own what he was about to state. At the same time, lest all this should be despised as the offspring of man’s brain, we shall find him afterwards declaring, that his statement are not the contrivances of his own understanding. [2]”

2Corinthians: Here Paul once again speaks of himself as being a minister of Gospel who is working under the power, influence, and leadership of the Spirit of God who was promised by Jesus. “And such trust have we through Christ to God-ward: not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing as of ourselves; but our sufficiency is of God; who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.” (2 Corinthians 3:4–6, AV 1873) He later states that he has a God-given authority both in his preaching and his writings: “For though I should boast somewhat more of our authority, which the Lord hath given us for edification, and not for your destruction, I should not be ashamed: that I may not seem as if I would terrify you by letters. For his letters, say they, are weighty and powerful; but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible. Let such a one think this, that, such as we are in word by letters when we are absent, such will we be also in deed when we are present.” (2 Corinthians 10:8–11, AV 1873) Though he doesn’t explicitly state here that his words are inspired of God, these passages give us reason to believe that Paul saw himself as writing words that were given to him by the Spirit of God.

Galatians: In the book of Galatians Paul insists that he did not learn the gospel from men, but received it by revelation from Christ. He then speaks of the fact that the apostles gave him the “right hand of fellowship,” thus acknowledging that Paul was sent of God as they were. Though there is no mention of inspiration in this epistle, we can see that once again Paul sets forth an understanding that his preaching and teaching was of the same source as that of the other apostles, which source was the Spirit of God.

Ephesians: “Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ; and to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ: to the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God, according to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord: in whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him. Wherefore I desire that ye faint not at my tribulations for you, which is your glory.” (Ephesians 3:8–13, AV 1873) Note that Paul sees himself as one whose apostleship is to bear witness of Christ (John 15:26) to the world. He also recognizes that the work he is doing for/in the world is also for the Ephesians. All of this is a gift from God to Paul that he might perform this ministry. He also recognizes that his work is to make known the revelation of Christ. These things demonstrate Paul’s understanding that his words are of the Spirit of God, because he is making known the revelation of Christ, teaching truth as an apostle, and testifying of Jesus. In fact, he later states that he is testifying “in the Lord” (Ephesians 4:17), meaning that he is not simply speaking in self.

Let us then note that Paul quotes both Deuteronomy and Luke and calls them both Scripture. “For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward.” (1 Timothy 5:18, AV 1873) Paul, we see, considers Luke’s gospel account to be the inspired Word of God just as Deuteronomy is.

Furthermore, Peter implies that the words of the apostles were of the same authority as the words of the Old Testament prophets (2Peter 3:1-2) and states that Paul’s writings were Scripture, thus attributing to them the same source and authority that we have already seen that the Old Testament Scriptures have as the inspired Word of God (2Peter 3:15-16).

Then we find John testifies of Christ as an eyewitness (1John 1:1-4) of Christ. He goes farther than that and states that his words are the very testimony of God. “And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one. If we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is greater: for this is the witness of God which he hath testified of his Son. He that believeth on the Son of God hath the witness in himself: he that believeth not God hath made him a liar; because he believeth not the record that God gave of his Son. And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.” (1 John 5:8–11, AV 1873) John states that the Spirit bears witness in the earth, and the what he writes is the witness which God gave of Christ. This means that John was convinced that his words were the words of God, testified through him by the Spirit.

Revelation: The last book in the New Testament begins by stating that it is “TheRevelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John: who bare record of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, and of all things that he saw.” (Revelation 1:1–2, AV 1873) John states what he is writing is the revelation of Jesus Christ, and that this revelation would tell us of things to come. When we recall John 15:26;16:12-17 we can see that John no doubt understood that what he was writing was the work of the Spirit of God. Not only so, but John stated that God gave this revelation to Jesus, who sent it to John. As he closed the book, John stated that what he was writing was the words of the Spirit of God. “And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.” (Revelation 22:17, AV 1873) Then he clearly states that the Revelation is of the same authority as the  Old Testament Scriptures by saying, “For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: and if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.” (Revelation 22:18–19, AV 1873) This echoes Deuteronomy 4:2. Finally, John closes and repeats that the Revelation is the Word of Jesus (Revelation 22:20).

Given By Inspiration Of God

In 2Timothy 3:16 Paul tells us that “all Scripture is given by inspiration of God.” The literal meaning of “given by inspiration of God” is “God-breathed.” When we speak we breathe. “Given by inspiration of God” is Paul’s way of saying that Scripture is God’s Word. WilliamHendriksen,inhiscommentaryon2Timothy,said,“ThewordGod-breathed,occurringonlyhereindicatesthat“allscripture” owesitsoriginandcontentstothedivinebreath,theSpiritofGod.ThehumanauthorswerepowerfullyguidedanddirectedbytheHolySpirit.Asaresult,whattheywroteisnotonlywithouterrorbutofsupremevalueforman.ItisallthatGodwantedittobe.[3]”

I am certain that Paul was speaking of all of the Old Testament, but I am also convinced that he had the New Testament in mind as well. B.B. Warfield, speaking about the canon of Scripture said, “In the apprehension, therefore, of the earliest churches, the ‘Scriptures’ were not a closedbut an increasing‘canon. Such they had been from the beginning, as they gradually grew in number from Moses to Malachi; and such they were to continue as long as there should remain among the churches ‘men of God who spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.’ We say that this immediate placing of the new books—given the church under the seal of apostolic authority—among the Scriptures already established as such, was inevitable. It is also historically evinced from the very beginning. Thus the apostle Peter, writing in A.D. 68, speaks of Paul’s numerous letters not in contrast with the Scriptures, but as among the Scriptures and in contrast with “the otherScriptures” (2 Pet. 3:16)—that is, of course, those of the Old Testament.[4]”

Looking back over the course of this article we see that Paul recognized Luke’s gospel as being Scripture. If we are correct in assuming that Luke did indeed follow Matthew and Mark, Paul probably knew of them as well. Having seen that Paul understood his own writings to be the inspired Word of God, we can reasonably assume that he was referring to them as well.

Having considered these things, it is safe to say that, when Paul spoke of Scripture being given by inspiration of God, he had the New Testament Scriptures in mind as well as the Old Testament Scriptures.

Concluding Thoughts

This series of articles is a series about the inerrancy of Scripture. Being given by inspiration of God, Scripture is God’s Word. God is true and cannot lie (Numbers 23:19;Deuteronomy 32:4;Titus 1:1-2;Hebrews 6:17). We can conclude that the Scriptures, being the inspired Word of God, are true and without error.

 

 

[1]Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Epistles to the Corinthians, Volume 1, ed. William P. Dickson, trans. D. Douglas Bannerman, Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, 201 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1879).

[2]John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, 1 Co 7:10 (Galaxie Software, 2002; 2002).

[3]WilliamHendriksenandSimonJ.Kistemaker,vol.4,NewTestamentCommentary:ExpositionofthePastoralEpistles,NewTestamentCommentary,302(GrandRapids:BakerBookHouse,1953-2001).

[4]Benjamin B. Warfield, The Works of Benjamin B. Warfield, Volume 1: Revelation and Inspiration, 452 (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2008).